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‘Dumb and dumber? Teen marijuana use linked to lower IQ in later life.’ http://www.sj-r.com/article/ZZ/20140620/NEWS/306209982/2002/LIFESTYLE
 
Children will ‘pay’ if Cannabis is legalised!  http://www.dbrecoveryresources.com/2014/07/legalise-cannabis-and-children-will-pay-the-price/
 
Decreased dopamine brain reactivity in marijuana abusers is associated with negative emotionality and addiction severity
Significance: Marijuana abusers show lower positive and higher negative emotionality scores than controls, which is consistent, on one hand, with lower reward sensitivity and motivation and, on the other hand, with increased stress reactivity and irritability. To investigate this aspect of marijuana’s impact on the human brain, we compared the brain’s reactivity in marijuana abusers vs. controls when challenged with methylphenidate (MP). We found that marijuana abusers display attenuated dopamine (DA) responses to MP, including reduced decreases in striatal distribution volumes. These deficits cannot be unambiguously ascribed to reduced DA release (because decreases in nondisplaceable binding potential were not blunted) but could reflect a downstream postsynaptic effect that in the ventral striatum (brain reward region) might contribute to marijuana’s negative emotionality and addictive behaviors.  http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/07/10/1411228111
 
Resources:
a)      Grass Is NOT Greener - http://grassisnotgreener.com/
b)      Marijuana Harms Families - http://www.marijuanaharmsfamilies.com/

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a)      Grass Is NOT Greener - http://grassisnotgreener.com/
b)      Marijuana Harms Families - http://www.marijuanaharmsfamilies.com/
c)      Don’t Be A Lab Rat - http://dontbealabrat.com/
d)      S.A.M (Smart Approaches to Marijuana - http://learnaboutsam.org

Sweden Vs EUAOD Infograph 2014
Young People & Drugs European Commission 2014

 

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Good day fellow Harm Preventers!
 
Trust your term break was refreshing… Please not the excellent resource/data below for you file/use…
 
 
NIDA's Dr Nora Volkow Discusses Marijuana's Effects on the Brain, Body & Behaviour

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=RSDnLSU3owc
 
 
The World's Favourite Drug Is More Dangerous Than You Think, UN Says

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/06/27/un-world-drugs-report_n_5534768.html?utm_hp_ref=mostpopular
 
 
Marijuana / Cannabis and Schizophrenia

www.schizophrenia.com/prevention/streetdrugs.html


This is not an anti-marijuana organization. It is a SCHIZOPHRENIA treatment organization!  It references more than 30 different scientific studies. A study of 50,000 people in Sweden found that teens who were heavy users of marijuana at age 18 were over 600% more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia in the next 15 years!  (The study was done in 1987!)


Experts estimate that between 8% and 13% of all schizophrenia cases are linked to marijuana/cannabis use during teen years.
 
 
RESOURCES:


o   Good source for data on marijuana and its health consequences, go to:

http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/marijuana.


o   Resources on other drug policy issues, go to:

http://globaldrugpolicy.org/


o   INFO GRAPH on Australian AOD use:

http://www.druginfo.adf.org.au/infographics/alcohol-and-drugs-affect-everyone-infographic
 

Yours in helping kids make smarter, healthier and safer choices!

Education Team
Helping your school be more proactive and protective

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Hey Fellow Harm Prevention Educator…
 
The attached and following, very useful… I know there’s a lot of data in the UNODC report, but the executive summary is handy
 
Cannabis Issue in the Netherlands   https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B_Mfuul8fEJLRlRpd3ktal9uRWc/edit

 

2014 Global Synthetic Drugs_ Assessment UNODC

Healthy Spirit Community AOD Guide Indigenous Community ADF 2014

IBH Commentary Adverse Effects of Marijuana Use 6-11-14

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26/05/14

 

HIGH PRIORITY: Psychiatrist speaks to ‘medical’ marijuana

http://www.katenagroup.org/expertsspeak/DAVID_GROSS_MEDICAL_MARIJUANA_APRIL2014.mp3
 

http://alert.psychiatricnews.org/2014/04/legalizing-marijuana-could-harm.html
 

Marijuana use linked to heart/stroke problems
 
http://www.latimes.com/science/sciencenow/la-sci-sn-heart-attack-stroke-marijuana-20140423,0,3208786.story
 
 
Is this the future, if ‘Stoners’ Rule?


http://foxnewsinsider.com/2014/04/21/watters%E2%80%99-world-goes-denver-420-celebration
 

Casual marijuana use linked with brain abnormalities, study finds
“For the first time, researchers at Northwestern University have analyzed the relationship between casual use of marijuana and brain changes – and found that young adults who used cannabis just once or twice a week showed significant abnormalities in two important brain structures.”  http://www.foxnews.com/health/2014/04/15/casual-marijuana-use-linked-with-brain-abnormalities-study-finds/
 
 
Study finds brain changes in young marijuana users http://www.bostonglobe.com/lifestyle/health-wellness/2014/04/15/casual-marijuana-use-creates-brain-changes-new-report-shows/X1cN8A7h5pOVJkeYkXTXlJ/story.html
 
Ailments related to synthetic marijuana likely to rise, experts say
http://www.latimes.com/science/sciencenow/la-sci-sn-outbreaks-of-synthetic-pot-illness-will-increase-say-experts-20140122,0,4695995.story

 

24/4/14

 

11 Facts About Teens And Drug Use

1. More teens die from prescription drugs than heroin/cocaine combined.

2. In 2013, more high school seniors regularly used marijuana than cigarettes as 22.7% smoked pot in the last month, compared to 16.3% who smoked cigarettes.

3. 60% of seniors don't see regular marijuana use as harmful, but THC (the active ingredient in the drug that causes addiction) is nearly 5 times stronger than it was 20 years ago.

4. 1/3 of teenagers who live in states with medical marijuana laws get their pot from other people's prescriptions.

5. The United States represents 5% of the world's population and 75% of prescription drugs taken. 60% of teens who abuse prescription drugs get them free from friends and relatives.

6. Adderall use (often prescribed to treat ADHD) has increased among high school seniors from 5.4% in 2009 to 7.5% this year.

7. 54% of high school seniors do not think regular steroid use is harmful, the lowest number since 1980, when the National Institute on Drug Abuse started asking about perception on steroids.

8. By the 8th grade, 28% of adolescents have consumed alcohol, 15% have smoked cigarettes, and 16.5% have used marijuana.

9. Teens who consistently learn about the risks of drugs from their parents are up to 50% less likely to use drugs than those who don't.

10. 6.5% of high school seniors smoke pot daily, up from 5.1% five years ago. Meanwhile, less than 20% of 12th graders think occasional use is harmful, while less than 40% see regular use as harmful (lowest numbers since 1983).

11. About 50% of high school seniors do not think it's harmful to try crack or cocaine once or twice and 40% believe it's not harmful to use heroin once or twice.

Sources: National Institute on Drug Abuse; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

https://www.dosomething.org/facts/11-facts-about-teens-and-drug-use

 

                                                                        **************************************

Cannabis Issues

Legal pot in Colorado hasn't stopped black market and marijuana-related violent crimes

•          There have been a series of violent crimes related to the illegal sale of marijuana in Colorado this year

•          The crimes have raised concerns that a black market for the illegal marijuana is thriving in the state

•          Colorado legalized marijuana last year

•          Advocates say the state is in a transition period, and that illegal sales of marijuana will die away, as alcohol sales did after Prohibition was abolished

 

View site

'It has done nothing more than enhance the opportunity for the black market,'…'If you can get it tax-free on the corner, you're going to get it on the corner.'   Lieutenant Mark Comte of the Colorado Springs police vice and narcotics unit.

****************************************

“The average potency of pot has more than tripled in the past two decades, according to testing done for the federal government. This comes just over a year after Colorado and Washington legalized the drug and as many other states consider making it legal for medical or recreational use.

Scientists determine potency by measuring levels of THC, or delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychoactive ingredient that gives marijuana its “high.” And data from the University of Mississippi’s Potency Monitoring program found that the average potency of marijuana has jumped from 3.4 percent THC in 1993 to 12.3 percent THC in 2012. Scientists at the lab say they’ve seen samples as high as 36 percent.

This month’s “High Times” magazine, with a cover promoting “The Strongest Strains on Earth,” claims to have analyzed 15 strains of pot with potencies ranging between 25 to 28 percent THC. Marijuana near that strength can be bought at many legal retail shops and medical dispensaries across the U.S.”

view site

 

 

2/4/14

Heads up Learning Facilitator,

FYI - This Report "Alcohol Outlets: Recreational Ethanols availability and its social impact." a good synopsis of outlet impact on alcohol consumption.

http://www.dalgarnoinstitute.org.au/index.php/dalgarnothanks/research-reports

 

 

Post 20/3/14

Some stuff to get across!

üAlcohol leaves its mark on youngsters' DNA  http://www.parentherald.com/articles/3478/20131230/alcohol-leaves-its-mark-on-youngsters-dna.htm

Cannabis Data – need to know

üThe attached are article all relating to impact of Cannabis use by teen women and childbirth/health

üEverything You Need To Know About CBD http://learnaboutsam.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/CBD-brochure5.pdf  

üGreat resource for overview of Cannabis impact – Save to File http://www.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/pagefiles/12459/R2010-19-Adverse-Health-Consequences-Cannabis-Use-.pdf

üThis synoptic snapshot encapsulates where we’re going without change: http://video.foxnews.com/v/3020270529001/is-america-going-to-pot/

üCannabis Buzz kill: http://www.slate.com/blogs/the_slatest/2014/01/02/researchers_have_found_a_hormone_that_blocks_high_from_marijuana_use.html

ü  Israeli Pharmacists warn of Cannabis dangers: http://www.haaretz.com/mobile/.premium-1.568591?v=36D3EAC732D590E09348654B6B03414B

ü  OBAMA TRUMPED ON STUPID STATEMENTS http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/jan/21/obamas-white-house-drug-experts-contradict-his-mar/ 

ü  DEA speak out against Drug Legalisation – Fast Facts http://www.nobrainer.org.au/index.php/news/current-news

üMore on Dabbing, Extracts and other data at  http://www.nobrainer.org.au/index.php/news/current-news

 

Post 25/1/14

DEA’s Speaking Out Against Drug Legalization

Drug Enforcement Administration lead agency on Drug Control

Fact 1: Significant progress has been made in fighting drug use and drug trafficking in America.

Fact 2: A balanced approach of prevention, enforcement, and treatment are the keys in the fight against drug abuse.

Fact 3: Drug use is regulated and access to drugs is controlled because drugs can be harmful.

Fact 4: Smoked marijuana has never been and will never be scientifically approved medicine.

Fact 5: Drug control spending is a minor portion of the U.S. budget. Compared to the social costs of drug abuse and addiction, government spending on drug control is minimal.

Fact 6: Legalization of drugs will lead to increased use and increased levels of addiction.

Fact 7: Crime, violence, and drug use go hand-in-hand.

Fact 8: Alcohol and tobacco have caused significant health, social, and crime problems, and legalized drugs would only make the situation worse.

Fact 9: Europe’s more liberal drug policies are not the right model for America.

Fact 10: Most non-violent drug users get treatment, not jail time.

Six times as many homicides are committed by people under the influence of drugs than by those who are looking for money to buy drugs.

Most drug crimes aren’t committed by people trying to pay for drugs; they’re committed by people on drugs.

Drunk driving is one of the primary killers of Americans. Do we want our bus drivers, nurses, and airline pilots to be able to take drugs one evening, and operate freely at work the next day? Do we want to make “drugged” driving another primary killer?

In reality, a vast majority of inmates in state and federal prison for marijuana have been found guilty of much more than simple possession, and many of those serving time for marijuana possession pled down to possession in order to avoid prosecution on more serious charges.  0.1% No prior Trafficker level, Bureau of Justice statistics 2004, updated 2008

*In resource file DEA Position Paper on Marijuana Mental Health Issues, 15 pages

 

Post 20/1/14

DrugFacts: Marijuana Revised December 2012
http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/marijuana 
Rising Potency
The amount of THC in marijuana samples confiscated by police has been increasing steadily over the past few decades. In 2012, THC concentrations in marijuana averaged nearly 15 percent, compared to around 4 percent in the 1980s. For a new user, this may mean exposure to higher concentrations of THC, with a greater chance of an adverse or unpredictable reaction. Increases in potency may account for the rise in emergency department visits involving marijuana use. For experienced users, it may mean a greater risk for addiction if they are exposing them-selves to high doses on a regular basis. However, the full range of consequences associated with marijuana's higher potency is not well understood, nor is it known whether experienced marijuana users adjust for the increase in potency by using less.

Dabbing

"Scariest was the case of a young woman
who was hospitalized from a near-fatal allergic reaction
in which her throat closed up after smoking dabs."

-Animal New York ("Dabs: The World's Most Powerful and Sought After Weed Product)

What is "dabs?"

Dabs, otherwise known as butane hash oil (BHO), is an extremely potent extract created by passing butane through high-grade marijuana. Following the evaporation of the butane, a thick oil or resin remains. The oil is most commonly vaporized using a special water pipe known as a rig, although it can be consumed orally as well. Hash oil use has recently increased and is quickly becoming a more popular method of use among adolescents.

The resulting high is far stronger than that from marijuana, due to hash oil's very high levels of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol). While very strong strains of marijuana are around 25% THC, the 2009 United Nations "World Drug Report" states that hash oil can contain upwards of 60% THC. Additional reports suggest that the THC content of hash oil can reach as high as 90%.

post 14/1/14

Protect our youth from the marijuana tsunami    By Diane Carlson

http://www.denverpost.com/opinion/ci_24672734/protect-our-youth-from-marijuana-tsunami

 

 

Post 16/12/13

 NO SMART PERSON - NO CREDIBLE HEALTH PROFESSIONAL IS 'FOR' CANNABIS USE!

AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION OPPOSES MARIJUANA LEGALIZATION; SUPPORTS HEALTH-FIRST APPROACH TO MARIJUANA USE

Largest medical group in the US explicitly rejects calls to become “neutral” on legalization; supports full funding of the Office of National Drug Control Policy; calls for proper study of Colorado and Washington policies. It joins the American Psychiatric Association, who issued a statement last week outlining the public health harms of marijuana.

NATIONAL HARBOR, MD-The delegates at the 2013 Interim Meeting of the American Medical Association (AMA) House of Delegates, in National Harbor, Maryland, today voted to pass a resolution on marijuana, “Council of Science & Public Health Report 2 in Reference Committee K,” explicitly opposing marijuana legalization – fending off a challenge to “neutralize” their position. The report changes H-95.998 AMA Policy Statement on Cannabis to read in part that: “Our AMA believes that (1) cannabis is a dangerous drug and as such is a public health concern; (2) sale of cannabis should not be legalized.”

“The AMA today reiterated the widely held scientific view that marijuana is dangerous and should not be legalized,” commented Dr. Stuart Gitlow, Chair-Elect of the AMA Council on Science and Health and SAM Board Member. “We can only hope that the public will listen to science – not ‘Big Marijuana’ interests who stand to gain millions of dollars from increased addiction rates.”

Additionally, the report called for several provisions consistent with Project SAM’s marijuana pillars, including efforts to “discourage cannabis use, especially by persons vulnerable to the drug’s effects and in high-risk situations…support the determination of the consequences of long-term cannabis use through concentrated research, especially among youth and adolescents… support the modification of state and federal laws to emphasize public health based strategies to address and reduce cannabis use.”

“The American Medical Association took a bold step today, and they should be commended,” commented former Congressman Patrick J. Kennedy, SAM’s co-founder. “By explicitly rejecting calls to neutralize their anti-legalization position, they are sending a loud and powerful message to state and local decision makers, the Federal government, and the general public that to be on the side of science is to oppose efforts to expand marijuana use and addiction.”

Furthermore, several other elements in the report are consistent with SAM’s pillars, including calls to support: “the availability of and reduc[tion] (of) the cost of treatment programs for substance use disorders…a coordinated approach to adolescent drug education…community-based prevention programs for youth at risk to fund the Office of National Drug Control Policy… greater protection against discrimination in the employment and provision of services to drug abusers.” The report sums up much of these policy initiatives as a public health approach to marijuana use, which SAM wholeheartedly supports.

The AMA report follows an American Psychiatric Association position paper released last week, which concluded: “There is no current scientific evidence that marijuana is in any way beneficial for the treatment of any psychiatric disorder. In contrast, current evidence supports, at minimum, a strong association of cannabis use with the onset of psychiatric disorders. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to harm, given the effects of cannabis on neurological development.”

http://learnaboutsam.com/american-medical-association-opposes-marijuana-legalization-supports-health-first-approach-to-marijuana-use/

 

American Psychiatric Association Position on 'Medical Marijuana' 

• There is no current scientific evidence that marijuana is in any way beneficial for the treatment of any psychiatric disorder. In contrast, current evidence supports, at minimum, a strong association of cannabis use with the onset of psychiatric disorders. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to harm, given the effects of cannabis on neurological development.

• Further research on the use of cannabis-derived substances as medicine should be encouraged and facilitated by the federal government. The adverse effects of marijuana, including, but not limited to, the likelihood of addiction, must be simultaneously studied.

• Policy and practice surrounding cannabis-derived substances should not be altered until sufficient clinical evidence supports such changes.

• If scientific evidence supports the use of cannabis-derived substances to treat specific conditions, the medication should be subject to the approval process of the FDA.

Regarding state initiatives to authorize the use of marijuana for medical purposes:

• Medical treatment should be evidence-based and determined by professional standards of care; it should not be authorized by ballot initiatives.

• No medication approved by the FDA is smoked. Marijuana that is dispensed under a state-authorized program is not a specific product with controlled dosages. The buyer has no way of knowing the strength or purity of the product, as cannabis lacks the quality control of FDA-approved medicines.

• Prescribers and patients should be aware that the dosage administered by smoking is related to the depth and duration of the inhalation, and therefore difficult to standardize. The content and potency of various cannabinoids contained in marijuana can also vary, making dose standardization a challenging task.

• Physicians who recommend use of smoked marijuana for “medical” purposes should be fully aware of the risks and liabilities inherent in doing so. Item 2013A2 4.B Assembly November 8-10, 2013 Attachment #1

AUTHORS: Tauheed Zaman, M.D.; Richard N. Rosenthal, M.D.; John A. Renner, Jr., M.D.; Herbert D. Kleber, M.D.; Robert Milin, M.D.

 

Post 9/12/13

"You can study, study, study it, but it's THC (Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) — that is the active ingredient," Franson said. "And there are certain things that happen to everyone who takes THC."
These, she said, are a feeling of pleasure or high, motor instability, decreased reaction time, attention deficit and increased heart rate.
"People think it mellows them out, but it causes an average increase in heart rate of 16 beats per minute," Franson said. "That's why people who take high doses they are unaccustomed to can experience significant anxiety or paranoia."
Other THC effects commonly experienced are increased appetite, decreased nausea, decreased motivation and decreased pain perception.
Additional typical effects are bloodshot eyes, decreased pressure inside the eye (it's used to treat glaucoma), heightened sensory perception (intense colors and sounds), distorted sense of time and sometimes a dry mouth.

"The cannabinoid receptor system is one of the biggest systems. Your brain is chock-full of them," said Dr. Christian Hopfer, an associate professor of psychiatry at University of Colorado Hospital's Center for Dependency, Addiction and Recovery.
"You need (the body's natural cannabinoids), and it has an effect when you're messing with those receptors," Hopfer said.
THC mimics the body's cannabinoids. Both interact with the same receptors. When THC binds to the receptor, it interferes with normal brain function, such as dopamine regulation.
Dopamine is part of the body's natural reward system and a key molecule in many brain functions, such as attentiveness, motivation, learning, memorization and motor control. THC increases dopamine in the short term, but ultimately interferes with the body's own reward circuit.

With chronic cannabis consumption, the body decreases the number of receptors for its cannabinoids. Researchers have found that this results in reduced blood flow — and glucose and oxygen — to the brain. This could manifest as attention-deficit, memory loss and other impaired mental abilities.
"There is evidence you don't recover all your mental capacity when you quit using," said Hopfer, who treats marijuana and other addictions. "It's a very insidious addiction. It's very hard to treat. Its effects are subtle, gradual and less dramatic. And it's been trivialized."

http://www.denverpost.com/news/ci_24627637/pot-hundreds-names-one-key-ingredient-and-far 

Also, yet another study confirming Cannabis impact on long term Psychosis

http://carbc2300.wordpress.com/2013/12/02/cannabis-and-psychosis-is-there-evidence-of-causal-association/ 

Post 25/11/13

We've loaded up a new paper from one of our D.A.R.Think Tank Members, Professor Stuart Reese. This is a good inventory of what is actually agreed upon, regarding cannabis, even by the pro-drug advocates!

http://www.dalgarnoinstitute.org.au/images/resources/pdf/dart/OverwhelmingAgreement_in_the_StrangeCannabisDebate2013.pdf

 

Post 21/11/13

Snapshot of some of the impact of the ever increasing liberalisation of drug use: Cannabis
"Permissibility, availability and accessibility all increase consumption." Dalgarno Institute
The pro-drug lobby has been relentlessly pushing the liberalization of drug use for about 25 years. Whilst the vast majority of people stay clear of illicit drugs, the push for Cannabis use has been aided and abetted by first medical marijuana (a Trojan Horse if ever there was one) and the 'giving up' on demand reduction strategies – especially aggressive and fully government supported education against cannabis. Cannabis use was in decline up until the 'medical marijuana con' got traction, this trend has reversed because a growing and completely false perception that 'dope' is relatively harmless.
The following is just a snapshot of the impact of this 'it's harmless really' ideology has had on our communities.


Some USA Data
According to NSDUH survey data, the number of people reporting current (past month) marijuana use increased 21 percent from 2007 to 2011. In each of those years, the number of people reporting marijuana abuse was greater than for all other drugs combined.
• DAWN (Drug Abuse Warning Network – SAMHSA) data show there was a 59 percent increase in marijuana-related emergency department visits between 2006 (290,565) and 2010 (461,028). Marijuana was second only to cocaine for illicit drug-related emergency department visits in 2010.
• According to Monitoring the Future (MTF) data, between 2008 and 2012 there was a steady decline in the percentage of 8th, 10th, and 12th graders who view trying marijuana once or twice, smoking marijuana occasionally, or smoking marijuana regularly as high-risk behavior. The most pronounced decline in viewing marijuana use as risky behavior occurred among 10th graders.
• Marijuana-related treatment admissions increased 14 percent between 2006 (310,155) and 2010 (353,271), according to TEDS data.
In 2012, marijuana availability appeared to be increasing throughout the United States, most likely because of increased domestic cannabis cultivation and sustained high levels of production in Mexico. Additionally, marijuana potency is increasing. According to the Potency Monitoring Project, the average percentage of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the constituent that gives marijuana its potency, increased 37 percent from 2007 (8.7 percent) to 2011 (11.9 percent).
Taken from: USA National Drug Threat Assessment 2013 summary
http://www.justice.gov/dea/resource-center/DIR-017-13%20NDTA%20Summary%20final.pdf 

Some UK findings
We evaluate the impact of a policing experiment that depenalized the possession of small quantities of cannabis in the London borough of Lambeth, on hospital admissions related to illicit drug use. To do so, we exploit administrative records on individual hospital admissions classified by ICD-10 diagnosis codes. These records allow the construction of a quarterly panel data set by London borough running from 1997 to 2009 to estimate the short and long run impacts of the depenalization policy unilaterally introduced in Lambeth between 2001 and 2002.
We find the depenalization of cannabis had significant longer term impacts on hospital admissions related to the use of hard drugs, raising hospital admission rates for men by between 40 and 100% of their pre-policy baseline levels. Among Lambeth residents, the impacts are concentrated among men in younger age cohorts, and among those with no prior history of hospitalization related to illicit drug or alcohol use. The dynamic impacts across cohorts vary in profile with some cohorts experiencing hospitalization rates remaining above pre-intervention levels six years after the depenalization policy is introduced.
We find evidence of smaller but significant positive spill-over effects in hospitalization rates related to hard drug use among residents in boroughs neighbouring Lambeth, and these are again concentrated among younger cohorts without prior histories of hospitalizations related to illicit drug or alcohol use. We combine these estimated impacts on hospitalization rates with estimates on how the policy impacted the severity of hospital admissions to provide a lower bound estimate of the public health cost of the depenalization policy.
... Our results suggest policing strategies have significant, nuanced and lasting impacts on public health. In particular our results provide a note of caution to moves to adopt more liberal approaches to the regulation of illicit drug markets, as typically embodied in policies such as the depenalization of cannabis. While such policies may well have numerous benefits such as preventing many young people from being criminalized (around 70% of drug-related criminal offences relate to cannabis possession in London over the study period), allowing the police to reallocate their effort towards other crime types and indeed reduce total crime overall [Adda et al., 2011], there remain potentially offsetting costs related to public health that also need to be factored into any cost benefit analysis of such approaches.
Policing Cannabis and Drug Related Hospital Admissions: Evidence from Administrative Records; Elaine Kelly & Imran Rasul, October 2012

 

 

Post 19/11/2013 - It's good to go back and review the body of evidence that existed even 30 years ago on Cannabis. Not only is it accurate but in some issue predictive.

Cannabis Sativa

Check it out full document at 

http://www.inchem.org/documents/pims/plant/cannabis.htm#PartTitle

2.2 Summary of clinical effects
       Acute intoxication - depends upon several facts such as (e.g. 
       emotional state, past experiences, psychological state, 
       association with other drugs. Marihuana may produce: 
       apprehensive states, panic, anxiety, hallucinations and 
       prolonged psychotic states (acute delirious psychosis, 
       paranoic reactions, flashbacks, excitation with auto or 
       heteroagressiveness, mental confusion and depersonalization). 
       Severe headaches and abdominal discomfort are common.
       
       On clinical examination: motor incoordination, reduction of 
       reflex responses, distortion of the perception of time and 
       space, conjunctival irritation, dryness of mouth and throat, 
       pulmonary irritation (hacking cough, bronchial hypersecretion, 
       bronchospasm) tachycardia and tremor.
       
       Note: The  effect sought by the consumer is a dishinhibition 
       state with euphoria, unmotivated laugh, relaxed sensation and 
       pleasant drowsiness. After the lethargic phase, changes in 
       humour and depression may be observed.
       
       Chronic use may be asssociated with the induction of 
       "amotivational syndrome" and loss of memory, amongst many 
       other possible effects (see section 9).

 

 

Post 8/11/13 NO Surprises here!

Higher Rates of Adolescent Substance Use in Child Welfare Versus Community Populations in the United States
Journal on Studies of Alcohol & Drugs Volume 74, 2013  Issue 6: November 2013  Danielle L. Fettes, Gregory A. Aarons, Amy E. Green
Objective: Youth substance use exacts costly consequences for a variety of important health outcomes. We examined and compared prevalence rates and a common set of psychosocial factors of lifetime and current substance use among child welfare-involved youths and community youths from two nationally representative data sets. Method:Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we compared prevalence rates and conducted logistic regression models for eight binary outcome measures of substance use: lifetime and current use of alcohol, inhalant, marijuana, and other illicit drugs to examine predictors of substance involvement in the two samples.
 
 Results: Substance use prevalence was higher among child welfare-involved youths than community youths for lifetime marijuana use, lifetime and current inhalant use, and lifetime and current other illicit drug use. Among both child welfare-involved and community youths, delinquency was the factor most strongly associated with all lifetime substance use outcomes. Notably, family structure and parental closeness were important protective factors against current substance use among child welfare-involved youths. For community youths, poorer emotional health was the strongest indicator of current substance use. 
 
Conclusions: Substance use among all adolescents is a critical public health concern. Given the heightened vulnerability of child welfare-involved youths, it is particularly important to focus prevention and early intervention efforts on this population. Further research should explore additional factors associated with substance use among these youths so that child welfare and behavioral health systems may jointly target prevention and intervention efforts. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 74, 825–834, 2013)

 

 

 

 

Post 6/11/13

US Studies relatively similar to ours - something to watch out for in year 6 - 8 students!

Objective: Because initiation of inhalants at an early age is associated with a range of health and behavioral problems, including an increased likelihood of inhalant dependence (based on criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition), we conducted discrete time survival analyses to determine the role of time-invariant and time-variant (over five waves) risk and protective factors as well as grade in inhalant initiation among middle school students. Method: The current study uses data from 3,215 students who were initially surveyed as sixth graders in 2008–2009 and were resurveyed in seventh and eighth grades. Students were part of a larger substance use prevention trial conducted in greater Los Angeles. The sample is racially/ethnically diverse (54% Hispanic/Latino, 16% Asian, 14% White, 3% African American) and 51% male. Results: Seventeen percent of youths initiated inhalants during middle school. Higher drug refusal self-efficacy, familism (i.e., values related to family), and parental respect were associated with decreased odds of inhalant initiation. Having a significant adult or older sibling who used substances was associated with increased risk of initiation, but adult influence declined linearly and by the end of seventh grade was no longer a risk factor. Self-rated popularity was associated with inhalant initiation in seventh grade only, and perceived substance use by peers was associated with inhalant initiation in sixth grade only. Conclusions: The influence of adults, siblings, and peers on inhalant use may be strongest in sixth and seventh grade. Interventions to prevent inhalant initiation should target sixth and seventh graders, address influence by family and peers, and provide skills training to improve drug refusal self-efficacy. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 74, 835–840, 2013)

Risk for Inhalant Initiation Among Middle School Students: Understanding Individual, Family, and Peer Risk and Protective Factors
Allison J. Ober, Jeremy N.V. Miles, Brett Ewing, Joan S. Tucker, Elizabeth J. D'Amico

http://www.jsad.com/jsad/article/Risk_for_Inhalant_Initiation_Among_Middle_School_Students_Understanding_In/4864.html 

Post 6/11/13

Yet another 'bullet in the chamber of the Russian Roulette that is NPS! 

What is 25i:
25i or 25I-NBOMe is a hallucinogen and is compared to LSD. It can be manufactured, but most often is purchased off the Internet, often in powder form, and inhaled, injected or snorted. Officers believe it may be being passed locally as a liquid blotted on the back of stamps like LSD, or in capsules.
25i may go by the names:
• Dime
• 25C
• NBOME
• DOB
Adverse effects include:
• depression
• aggression
• hypertension
• seizure activity
• elevated white blood cell counts and acute kidney      damage
• bleeding in the brain
• heart failure
According to national reports, several people have had prolonged hospitalization or died after taking the drug.
"It's frightening because no one knows how much is too much since the strength of each dose is different. That's why we're seeing the overdoses." Said Sgt. Harrington.
The Drug Enforcement Administration considers 25i similar to LSD and therefore illegal in all 50 states. At this time, no Idaho law specifically bans the active ingredient.
"Right now, the best defense is education. Let people know this is out there, it's extremely dangerous, and like all illicit drugs, should not be used." Said Sgt. Harrington.

 

Post 31/10/13

Krokodil  

As with many of the new synthetic drugs of abuse, there is limited research and/or information available on long-term effects. Most of the information is gathered by users or those in contact with users. Below you will find a short summary of what can be gleaned on this insidious cocktail known in Russian as ….Krokodil.

What is Krokodil?

Medical name: Desomorphine. Desomorphine is an opioid (a synthetic narcotic that has opiate-like activities but is not derived from opium) first patented in 1932 by the United States. It’s a derivative of morphine that has sedative and analgesic effects and is 8-10 times more potent than morphine.  It is a classified as a Schedule I substance under the federal Controlled Substances Act. Schedule I means:

1.           The drug or other substance has a high potential for abuse.

2.           The drug or other substance has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States.

3.            There is a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision.

Street Names: Krokodil, Walking Dead, Crocodile, Krok and Zombie Drug.

The name Krokodil comes from the word crocodile and was named as such because of the greenish and scale-like skin condition that occurs as a result of injecting the drug.  At $6 to $8 a syringe, it’s roughly three times cheaper than the price of heroin.

Manufacture of this Novel Psychoactive Substance:

Krokodil is produced using over-the-counter codeine-based pills and mixing them with gasoline, paint thinner, hydrochloric acid and red phosphorous (scrapped from the tips of matches). The ingredients are boiled, distilled, mixed and what remains is a caramel colored liquid that can be injected. 

Prevalence of use began in 2007 in Siberia and spread throughout the Russia.  In 2011 the Russian Federal Drug Control Services confiscated approximately 65 million doses of Krokodil

Effects of Krokodil:

Ø  So called ‘High’ lasts from 30 minutes to approximately 1.5 hours and is reported by addicts/users to be similar, but more powerful, than the effects of heroin 

Ø   Causes flesh to rot from the inside out

Ø   Skin becomes scaly; blood vessels burst causing the surrounding tissue to die

Ø  Results in gangrene and amputations

Ø  Exposed bone

Ø   Kidney and liver damage

Ø  Rotting teeth

      Ø  Blood poisoning

Ø  Brain damage

Ø  Death;  average lifespan of users is 2-3 years, 3 year expectancy after first use

Withdrawal symptoms:

Ø  Could last as long as 30 days

      Ø  Painful due to the blood vessel destruction and tissue damage

Articles and Resources:

 

 

post 28/10/13 

Patrons Offending & Intoxication in Night-Time Entertainment Districts (POINTED) Study -

Data Over 6000 patrons interviewed  (this is a significant sample) in 5 key cities

Preloading = drinking heavily before going out

Where? = Vast majority of drinking is done in private homes

Reason? = Over 61% was because price was cheaper (discount liquor barn purchases much cheaper than venue prices) Around 14% do this for fun and 7% respondents wanted to intoxicated before going out

Consequences = People who preloaded were significantly more likely to get into fight

5+ drinks 2 x more likely     11-25 drink 2.8-3.8 x more likely     25+ drinks 4.5 x more likely

Energy Drinks

23% of people interview consumed energy drinks on night, with 14.6% combining these drinks with alcohol. (This is believed to ‘manage’ the tiredness of alcohol but maintain the relaxed buzz)

People consuming energy drinks on nights of intoxication were significantly more likely to.

 a) Record a higher BAC Reading (Blood Alcohol Content)

 b)     Higher levels of intoxication

 c)      Report any form of aggression

 d)     Report being refused entry into venues

 e)      Report having driven while drunk

 f)       Reported committing property crime

Illicit Drugs

Around 16% of respondents reported using illicit drugs during current night out

People who used illicit drugs were significantly more likely to

1) Physical aggression

 2) Verbal aggression

3)Sexual aggression

4) Property crime

5) Any alcohol related injury

Conclusions from this study

x Pre-drinking (preloading) is a major and growing problem.

x Illicit drug use predicts greater harm

x  People who use Energy Drinks are typically higher risk night time patrons, who experience significantly more harm

x SA (Responsible Serving of Alcohol) is failing demonstrably and needs far greater enforcement

Patrons Offending & Intoxication in Night-Time Entertainment Districts (POINTED) By Adjunct Professor Peter Miller – Deakin University

 

Drinking cultures and social occasions research summary

People aged 25 and under are most likely to experience acute intoxication and assault related to alcohol on New Year’s Eve, Australia Day and ANZAC Day and Queen’s Birthday, in that order.

 1. On Australia Day, ambulance attendances for intoxicated young people more than double, compared to the average.

2.   Australia Day also heralds a 50 per cent increase of intoxicated young people presenting to Melbourne’s emergency departments, while there is a 200 per cent rise in young people treated for injuries due to assaults.

3. On ANZAC Day, ambulance attendances due to alcohol intoxication and emergency department presentations for assault increase by around 50 per cent.

http://www.vichealth.vic.gov.au/Publications/Alcohol-Misuse/Drinking-cultures-and-social-occasions.aspx

 

 

October 25th - Couple of things happening to keep an eye on...

1) If you want to stay across the drug legalisation guff, then go to www.dontlegalisedrugs.org and get the evidence, not the 'smoke screen' if you get our drift

2) Keep up with what's trending on our Twitter Feeds on No Brainer, Dalgarno and 21 Be There sites

3) Check out the updates on events with the 21 Be There Movement at www.21bethere.org.au 

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