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A Yale-led analysis of the genomes of more than 1 million people has shed light on the underlying biology of cannabis use disorder and associated risks.
From the abstract: As recreational use of cannabis is being decriminalized in many places and medical use widely sanctioned, there are growing concerns about increases in cannabis use disorder (CanUD), which is associated with numerous medical comorbidities. A genetically informed causal relationship analysis indicated a possible effect of genetic liability for CanUD on lung cancer risk, suggesting potential unanticipated future medical and psychiatric public health consequences.
This study yields new insights into the genetic architecture of CanUD and how this risk interacts with traits crucial to public health and raises important concerns regarding the potential adverse consequences of the secular trend toward increased cannabis use consequent to legalization. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41588-023-01563-z
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Context: Cannabis use among the general population has increased over time, in part due to decriminalization of use and greater social acceptance of cannabis use. These changes have contributed to increased availability of cannabis products, thus raising the likelihood that a subset of adolescent and young adult athletes will use cannabis. Therefore, it is imperative that clinicians and other providers working with young athletes have a thorough understanding of the impact cannabis can have on the athletic performance and overall health of a young athlete.
Survey studies suggest that up to 1 in 4 athletes have used cannabis at least once in the last year. Age, sex, race, sexual orientation, level of competition, and country of residence of an athlete all contribute to differing rates of cannabis use among athletes. The scientific literature does not support using cannabis for athletic performance, and multiple studies have demonstrated notable impairments in objective athletic performance measures. Cannabis use can also negatively impact an athlete’s overall health via cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and mental health symptoms and disorders.
Conclusion: Cannabis use among adolescent and young adult athletes is common, and rates of use are influenced by many different factors. Current evidence suggests that cannabis use can worsen sport performance, negatively impact an athlete’s general health, and contribute to negative mental health outcomes. (Source: Cannabis Use in Adolescent and Young Adult Athletes: A Clinical Review 2023 (sagepub.com)
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'Legal High, Marijuana light'?: Mislabelled & Illegal CBD Products sold at convenience stores test like Marijuana –The chaos of toxic cannabis legalisation failure.
These openly sold toxins are not only illegal, but incredibly dangerous to both users and non-users.
Watch Report: https://youtu.be/ZOvtqvtCF00?si=QCbb7mmBrna7c14q
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Associations between cannabis use disorder (CUD) and affective psychiatric illnesses are understudied. Researchers analyzed registry data from Danish persons ≥16 years old between 1995 and 2021 to examine the associations between CUD diagnosis and subsequent diagnoses of major depressive disorder (unipolar depression) and bipolar disorder, including psychotic and non-psychotic subtypes of each illness.
- Of the 6,651,765 persons (50 percent female) analyzed, 1 percent (n=60,696) were diagnosed with CUD and 4 percent (n=260,746) were diagnosed with an affective disorder over the study period.
- There was an increased risk of developing both psychotic depression (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.97) and nonpsychotic depression (aHR, 1.83) among persons with CUD compared with those without CUD.
- There was an increased risk of developing psychotic bipolar disorder (aHR, 4.05) and nonpsychotic bipolar disorder (aHR, 2.96 for men; aHR, 2.60 for women) among persons with CUD compared with those without CUD.
- Risk of developing an affective illness was highest within the first 6 months of CUD diagnosis for both unipolar depression and bipolar disorder, but the risk of developing either affective illness disorder remained elevated for 10 years following CUD diagnosis.
Comments: These data suggest that CUD is associated with an increased risk of developing both psychotic and nonpsychotic major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, although a causal link has not been established. As cannabis use and CUD become increasingly prevalent, clinicians should be aware that patients with CUD may have higher likelihood of developing affective illnesses.
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Cannabis Use Need Not Meet Criteria for Use Disorder to Be Harmful to Adolescents
Cannabis use can affect memory, motivation, attention, and mental health. Adolescents are particularly susceptible to its effects due to critical brain development during this developmental stage. As more US states legalize cannabis, adolescents are increasingly perceiving it to be safe, compared with a decade ago. This study used data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health to investigate the association of both cannabis use disorder (CUD) and non-disordered cannabis use (NDCU)* with adverse psychological events among US adolescents.
- NDCU was found to be 4 times more prevalent than CUD. Youth with NDCU averaged meeting 0.5 DSM-5 CUD criteria, while those with CUD met an average of 3.5 criteria.
- Both NDSU and CUD were associated with poor mental health, but the difference between the two was not significant.
- NDCU was associated with difficulty concentrating (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.8) and truancy (aOR, 2.4), compared with non-use; the odds were greater for those with CUD (aOR, 2.4 and 3.0, respectively).
- NDCU was also associated with past-year arrests (aOR, 4.2) and the association was stronger among those with CUD (aOR, 10.5); both NDCU and CUD were associated with aggression when compared with non-use.
* CUD defined as meeting DSM-5 CUD criteria; NDCU defined as recent cannabis use that does not meet criteria for CUD.
Comments: This study suggests that cannabis use is potentially harmful for all adolescents, even when it does not meet criteria for a use disorder. This reinforces the importance of screening all adolescents for cannabis use. All cannabis use in adolescence should be taken seriously, particularly in this time of increasing legalization in the US, where attitudes towards cannabis use are becoming more positive and availability has increased.