DRUG INFORMATION RESOURCES - INTERNATIONAL
The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is the agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that leads public health efforts to advance the behavioral health of the nation. SAMHSA's mission is to reduce the impact of substance abuse and mental illness on America's communities.
What are magic mushrooms and psilocybin?
Psilocybin is a hallucinogenic substance people ingest from certain types of mushrooms that grow in regions of Europe, South America, Mexico, and the United States.
People who have taken psilocybin in uncontrolled settings might engage in reckless behavior, such as driving while intoxicated.
Some people may experience persistent, distressing alterations to the way they see the world. These effects are often visual and can last anywhere from weeks to years after using the hallucinogen.
Physicians now diagnose this condition as hallucinogen persisting perception disorder, also known as a flashback. A flashback is a traumatic recall of an intensely upsetting experience. The recollection of this upsetting experience during hallucinogen use would be a bad trip, or a hallucination that takes a disturbing turn.
Some individuals experience more unpleasant effects than hallucinations, such as fear, agitation, confusion, delirium, psychosis, and syndromes that resemble schizophrenia, requiring a trip to the emergency room.
In most cases, a doctor will treat these effects with medication, such as benzodiazepines. These effects often resolve in 6 to 8 hours as the effects of the drug wear off.
Finally, though the risk is small, some psilocybin users risk accidental poisoning from eating a poisonous mushroom by mistake – Symptoms of mushroom poisoning may include muscle spasms, confusion, and delirium. Visit an emergency room immediately if these symptoms occur.
Because hallucinogenic and other poisonous mushrooms are common to most living environments, a person should regularly remove all mushrooms from areas where children are routinely present to prevent accidental consumption.
Most accidental mushroom ingestion results in minor gastrointestinal illness, with only the most severe instances requiring medical attention.
Psilocybin as a treatment for depression
Discussions are ongoing about whether psychological specialists can use psilocybin and similar hallucinogens as a treatment for depression.
Two studies have looked at psilocybin as a treatment. One study examined the ability of psilocybin to reduce depression symptoms without dulling emotions, and the other assessed the relationshipTrusted Source between any positive therapeutic outcomes and the nature of psilocybin-induced hallucinations.
While some researchers are looking into some therapeutic uses for psilocybin, they still, at present, regard psilocybin as unsafe and illegal.
The effects of psilocybin are generally similar to those of LSD. They include an altered perception of time and space and intense changes in mood and feeling.
Possible effects of psilocybin include:
- quickly changing emotions
- derealization, or the feeling that surroundings are not real
- depersonalization, or a dream-like sense of being disengaged from surroundings
- distorted thinking
- visual alteration and distortion, such as halos of light and vivid colors
- dilated pupils
- impaired concentration
- muscle weakness
- lack of coordination
- unusual body sensations
- ‘spiritual’ awakening
- frightening hallucinations
World Drug Report 2020 (Exective Summary) UNODC
For all reports go to World Drug Report 2020 (unodc.org)
UNODC – Strategy 2021-25 (United Nations Office Drugs & Crime)
Students Who Turn To Adderall To Cram For Tests May Be Hurting Their Developing Brain
Easy A’s Now Means Struggles Down The Road
A common belief among students is that taking their friend’s Adderall will help them stay awake and be able to retain information better, but studies on academic performance and Adderall find there is no proof of benefit when used that way.
Conversely, they are damaging the prefrontal cortex, the part of the brain that stores long-term memories, according to Begdache, who began researching Adderall abuse in 2009 when a student asked her about it. She said the brain does not fully develop until age 25, and most college students are between the ages of 18 and 24.
But the dangers don’t end there. Adderall abuse can affect a person’s mood, leading to short-term side effects like paranoia, insomnia and anger. Continuing to abuse the drug can lead to dependency on other drugs such as THC (the chemical in marijuana) and alcohol. Dependency may become so severe that one could not perform daily responsibilities without it.
“When someone consumes unprescribed medications, it can place them at risk for adverse reactions. There can also be risks with consuming counterfeit pills that have been adulterated,” said Kelly Truesdell, assistant director of health promotion and community outreach at the University of Georgia.
What Parents Need Know About Weed - AALM flyer
Ecstasy Deaths – Red Card on Pill Testing
DRUGS OF ABUSE 2020 Guide
Concerns About CBD?
Pill Testing Increases Festival Goers Intention to Use Ecstasy.
Conclusion – Based on the evaluation, pill testing represents a real and present danger to the community, especially considering that generally, those who reported moderate levels of intention to use a drug before entering the pill testing service, increased their intention to use a drug after using the pill testing service. This is the exact opposite to what our Members of Parliament, the community and the media have been led to believe. Mr. Waterman said, this is absolutely damning evidence and confirms what I have said from the start, Pill testing normalises drug use and will likely lead to an increase in drug use as a result.
The Key Role of Epigenetics in Human Disease Prevention and Mitigation
‘Alarming’ amount of new drugs on dark web: ANU study
Australians have access to mass amounts of potent drugs online, equivalent to "billions of doses" every day, according to a new study from The Australian National University (ANU).
The report found "alarming" amounts of synthetic opioids such as fentanyl and carfentanil available on the dark web.
Carfentanil is not for human use and was originally designed to sedate elephants.
The researchers say the report lifts the lid on a significant new synthetic opioid market on the dark web.
"We are on the brink of a new opioid epidemic driven by synthetics like fentanyl and carfentanil that are driving a greater risk of overdose deaths," said lead author Professor Roderic Broadhurst, from the ANU Cybercrime Observatory.
"Fentanyl is a designer synthetic opioid about 100 times more powerful than morphine," said Professor Broadhurst.
"The average dose of fentanyl is 200 micrograms. We found millions of doses of fentanyl available to buy every day.
"Carfentanil is 10,000 times more powerful than morphine and there are alarming amounts of it available online."
"We were shocked by the amount of Carfentanil we found. Billions of doses are available online on any day."
Professor Broadhurst says fentanyl is being used by criminal networks to lace heroin and create synthetic heroin that is changing the landscape of narcotic sales.
Measuring Aerosol Particle Emissions from Cannabis Vaporization and Dabbing
Cannabis smoke contains many of the same carcinogens and chemicals found in tobacco smoke (Moir, Rickert et al. 2008, Wei, Alwis et al. 2016). Exposure to secondhand cannabis smoke can impair endothelial function, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (Wang, Derakhshandeh et al. 2016). However, US data show that the perceived health risks of marijuana use are, in fact, declining among adults (Compton, Han et al. 2016). We measured the concentrations of airborne fine particles (PM2.5) and cannabinoids at an indoor cannabis event where dabbing and vaporizing were the only cannabis emissions. We found average particle concentrations of 200-600 micrograms per m3 and peak concentrations over 1,600 micrograms per m3. Particle concentrations this high are seen in extreme air pollution events like wildfires (Landis, Edgerton et al. 2018, Li, Han et al. 2018) and severe industrial pollution (Nagar, Singh et al. 2017, Li, Han et al. 2018). Exposure at these concentrations can cause cardiovascular and respiratory disease (Zheng, Ding et al. 2015, Li, Fan et al. 2016). We show that dabbing and vaporizing cannabis can create levels of indoor air pollution that are hazardous to human health, in the absence of actual combustion.
VAPING IS DESIGNED TO APPEAL TO KIDS:
Flavors are chosen that entice young appetites, like cookies & cream, cups o’ peanut butter and bubble gum. Stanford University compiled a startling gallery of photos comparing actual vape products to their sugar-coated candy and dessert inspirations.
Regardless of how they are ingested, nicotine and THC hurt kids’ developing brains. Vaping can provide very high concentrations of these drugs. For example, one JUUL pod has as much nicotine as a pack of cigarettes.
Vaping 'can damage vital immune system cells'
Vaping can damage vital immune system cells and may be more harmful than previously thought, a study suggests.
Researchers found e-cigarette vapour disabled important immune cells in the lung and boosted inflammation. The researchers "caution against the widely held opinion that e-cigarettes are safe".
However, Public Health England advises they are much less harmful than smoking and people should not hesitate to use them as an aid to giving up cigarettes. The small experimental study, led by Prof David Thickett, at the University of Birmingham, is published online in the journal Thorax.
Similar to other fentanils, the most serious acute health risk from using carfentanil is likely to be rapid and severe respiratory depression, which in overdose could lead to apnoea, respiratory arrest, and death (Dahan et al., 2010; EMCDDA, 2017; Lindsay et al., 2016; Pattinson, 2008; Wax et al., 2003; White and Irvine, 1999). Factors that may exacerbate this risk include: the difficulty in diluting the substance, which can lead to a toxic dose being inadvertently used; the use of routes of administration that have high bioavailability (such as injecting, insufflation, and inhalation); a lack of experience with its effects and dosing; the use of other central nervous system depressants at the same time (such as other opioids, benzodiazepines, gabapentanoids, and alcohol); no or limited tolerance to opioids; and, using the substance alone (such as at home) which would make it more difficult for users to call for help in the case of poisoning. In addition, as discussed below, as carfentanil is being sold as or in heroin and other illicit opioids, many users will not be aware that they are using carfentanil.
The Global SMART
(Synthetics Monitoring: Analyses, Reporting and Trends)
Programme improves the capacity of targeted Member States to generate, manage, analyse, report and use information on illicit synthetic drugs. The SMART programme was launched in September 2008 in Bangkok.
Well, if you're here reading this, you've at least had enough moxy in ya to start trying to 'get a clue'!
We know 'data' alone doesn't change behaviour, but at least it's a 'wake up' for those who give a damn – and you obviously do! The information in these 'Dalgarnowledge' sheets is up to date and accurate. They give a little more than mere 'facts' but the data integrity is not compromised….so read, learn, act and change!
See you again soon!
Listing of Information PDF Files
- Needle and Syringe Programs (NSP)
- Cannabis Conundrum Info Sheet
- Ecstacy Information
- Speed Information
- Ketamine Information
- GBH Information
- FASD - one for girls only
- FASD - for mothers
- LEGAL HIGHS
- Bath Salts
- VAPING CRISIS Info Sheet
For a range of FACT Sheets on various Cannabis Use Related issues go to NCPIC https://cannabissupport.com.au/